Professor Frances Gardner

Frances Gardner

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Contact information

  • Tel. +44 (0)1865 270325 o
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Publications

  • Cluver, L, Lachman, J, Ward, C, Gardner, F, Petersen, T, Meinck, F, Hutchings, J, Tsoanyane, S, Doubt, J, Redfern, A & Boyes, M (2016) "Developing a parenting programme to prevent child abuse in South Africa: A pre-post pilot study", Research on Social Work Practice  . doi: 10.1177/1049731516628647

  • Gottfredson, D., Cook, T., Gardner, F., Gorman-Smith, D., Howe, G., Sandler, I., Zafft, K. (2015) "Standards of Evidence for Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Scale-up Research in Prevention Science: Next Generation.", Prevention Science, DOI 10.1007/s11121-015-0555-x  . URL: download.springer.com/static/pdf/687/art%253A10.1007%252Fs11121-015-0555-x.pdf. Download

  • Chang, H., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Gardner, F., & Wilson, M. N. (2015) "Proactive parenting and children’s effortful control: Mediating role of language and indirect intervention effects.", Social Development, 24, 206-223.  

  • Gardner, F., Waller, R., Cluver, L., Boyes, M., & Maughan, B. (2015) "What are the risk factors for antisocial behavior among low-income youth in Cape Town?", Social Development. doi: 10.1111/sode.12127.  . Download

  • Vanderbilt-Adriance, E., Shaw, D. S., Brennan, L. M., Dishion, T. J., Gardner, F. E., and Wilson, M. N., (2015) "Child, family and community protective factors in the development of children’s early conduct problems. ", Family Relations, 64, 64-79.  

  • Sitnick, S. L., Shaw, D. S., Gill, A., Dishion, T., Winter, C., Waller, R., Gardner, F., Wilson, M. (2015) "Parenting and the Family Check-Up: Developments and changes in observed parent-child interaction during early childhood.", Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, epub ahead of print.  

  • Waller, R., Wright, A.G.C., Shaw, D.S., Gardner, F., Dishion, T.W., Wilson, M.N., & Hyde, L.W. (2014). (2015) "Factor structure and construct validity of the parent-reported Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits among high-risk 9 year olds.", Assessment, epub ahead of print.  . Download

  • Shaw, D. S., Sitnick, S. L., Brennan, L. M., Choe, D. E., Dishion, T. J., Wilson, M. N., & Gardner, F. (2015) "The long-term effectiveness of the Family Check-Up on school-age conduct problems: Moderation by neighborhood deprivation", Development and Psychopathology  . doi: DOI: dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579415001212

  • Collishaw, S., Gardner, F., Aber, J. L., & Cluver, L. (2015) "Predictors of Mental Health Resilience in Children who Have Been Parentally Bereaved by AIDS in Urban South Africa", Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology  . doi: 10.1007/s10802-015-0068-x

  • Eisner, M., Humphreys, D. K., Wilson, P., & Gardner, F. (2015) "Disclosure of Financial Conflicts of Interests in Interventions to Improve Child Psychosocial Health: A Cross-Sectional Study", PloS One, 10(11).  

  • Ward, C. L., Mikton, C., Cluver, L., Cooper, P., Gardner, F., Hutchings, J., Lachman, J. M., Murray, L., Tomlinson, M., Wessels, I.M. (2014) "Parenting for Lifelong Health: From South Africa to other low-and middle-income countries", Early Childhood Matters: Responsive parenting: a strategy to prevent violence (Vol. 49). The Hague, Netherlands: Bernard van Leer Foundation

  • Waller, R., Gardner, F., Cluver, L. (2014) "Shared and unique predictors of antisocial and substance use behavior in a national study of South African youth", Invited to Special Issue of Aggression & Violent Behavior, 19, 629-636.  

  • Waller, R., Gardner, F., Sitnick, S., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J. and Wilson, M. N. (2014) "Does early positive parenting matter for children’s adjustment at 7.5 years: addressing enduring questions with new methods", Social Development, 24, 304–322  . doi: 10.1111/sode.12103. Download

  • Shelleby, Vortruba-Drzal, E., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Gardner, F., & Wilson, M. N. (2014) "Income and Children's Behavioral Functioning: A Sequential Mediation Analysis", Journal of Family Psychology, 28, 936-942  

  • Waller, R., Gardner, F., Viding, E., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J. Wilson, M. N. & Hyde. L. (2014) "Bidirectional associations between parental warmth, deceitful-callous behavior, and conduct problems in high-risk preschoolers", Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 1275-85.  

  • Waller, R., Gardner, F., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T.J. and Wilson, M.N. (2014). (2014) "Callous-unemotional behavior and early-childhood onset of behavior problems: the role of parental harshness and warmth.", Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, epub ahead of print, DOI: 10.1080/15374416.2014.886252  

  • Chang, H., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Gardner, F., & Wilson, M. N. (2014) "Direct and indirect effects of the family check up on self regulation for toddlerhood to early school age", Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 1117-1128  

  • Waller, R., Gardner, F., & Hyde, L (2013) " Parenting as predictor of callous unemotional traits in young people: a systematic review. ", Clinical Psychology Review 33 593-608

  • Knerr, Wendy, Gardner, F., & Cluver, Lucie (2013) "Improving Positive Parenting Skills and Reducing Harsh and Abusive Parenting in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.", Prevention Science 14: 4 352 - 363. doi: 10.1007/s11121-012-0314-1. Download

  • Gardner, Frances, Mayo-Wilson, Evan., Montgomery, Paul, Hopewell, Sally, Macdonald, Geraldine, Moher, David and Grant, Sean (2013) "Editorial Perspective: The need for new guidelines to improve the reporting of trials in child and adolescent mental health", Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry : 54 810–812. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12106

  • Montgomery, Paul, Underhill, Kristen, Gardner, Frances, Operario, Don, Mayo-Wilson, Evan (2013) "The Oxford implementation index: a new tool for incorporating implementation data into systematic reviews and meta-analyses", Journal of Clinical Epidemiology  66 : 8 874-882. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.03.006.

  • Hyde, Luke, Shaw, Daniel, Gardner, Frances, Cheong, Jeewon, Dishion, Thomas, & Wilson, Melvin (2013) "Dimensions of callousness in early childhood: Links to problem behavior and family intervention effectiveness", Development and Psychopathology 25: 02 347-363

  • Chang, Hyein, Shaw, Daniel S., Dishion, Thomas J., Gardner, Frances, & Wilson, Melvin (2013) "Proactive parenting and children’s effortful control: Mediating role of language and indirect intervention effects", Social Development  

  • Brennan, Lauretta M., Shelleby, Elizabeth, Shaw, Daniel S., Dishion, Thomas J., Gardner, Frances, & Wilson, Melvin N. (2013) "Improvements in early positive parenting linked to children’s school-age achievement", Journal of Educational Psychology : 105 762-773. doi: NIHMSID469114

  • McEachern, Amber, Fosco, George, Dishion,. Thomas, Shaw, Daniel, Wilson, Melvin, & Gardner, Frances (2013) "Collateral benefits of the Family Check Up in early childhood: Primary caregiver’s social support and relationship satisfaction", Journal of Family Psychology : 27 271

  • Boyes, Mark, Cluver Lucie, & Gardner, Frances  (2013)The Child PTSD Checklist in a South African sample: Reliability, convergent validity, and evaluation of the symptom structure of PTSD. PLOS One

  • Stöckl, Heidi & Gardner, Frances (2013)Women’s Perceptions on how Pregnancy Influences the Context of Intimate Partner Violence. Culture, Health & Sexuality. Routledge

  • Fletcher Adam, Bonell Chris, Gardner Frances, McKee Martin (2012) "The government’s Troubled Families Programme: a flawed response to riots and youth offending", British Medical Journal  344 

  • Waller, Rebecca, Gardner, Frances, Dishion, Thomas J., Shaw, Daniel S., & Wilson, Melvin N. (2012) "Validity of a brief measure of parental affective attitudes in high-risk preschoolers", Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology : 40 945-955

  • Waller, Rebecca, Gardner, Frances, Hyde, Luke W., Shaw, Daniel S., Dishion, Thomas J. and Wilson, Melvin N. (2012) "Do harsh and positive parenting predict parent reports of deceitful-callous behavior in early childhood?", Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry : 53 946–953. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02550.x

  • Hutchings, Judy, & Gardner, Frances, (2012) "Support from the Start: effective programmes for 3-8 year-olds", Journal of Children’s Services 7 29-41

  • Shelleby, Elizabeth, Shaw, Daniel, Cheong, Jeewon, Chang, Hyein, Gardner, Frances, Dishion, Thomas, & Wilson, Melvin (2012) "Behavioral control in at-risk toddlers: The influence of the Family Check-Up.", Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 41 288-301

  • Cluver, Lucie, Orkin, Mark, Boyes, Mark E. & Gardner, Frances (2012) "AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness status: Effects on psychological symptoms in South African youth.", Journal of Pediatric Psychology  . doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jss004

  • Cluver, Lucie, Orkin, Mark, Gardner, Frances, & Boyes, Mark (2012) " Persisting mental health problems among AIDS-orphaned children in South Africa.", Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 53: 4 363-370

  • Gardner, Frances, Collishaw, Stephan, Maughan, Ben, Scott, Michael J. & Schepman, Kristen (2012) "Trends in parenting: Can they help explain time trends in problem behaviour? ", Hagell , Ann ed.,Changing adolescence: Social trends and mental health. Bristol: Policy Press

  • McEachern, A., Dishion, Thomas J., Shaw, Daniel S., Wilson, Melvin N., & Gardner, Frances (). . , (2012) "Parenting Young Children (PARYC): Validation of a self-report parenting measure", Journal of Family Studies 21: 3 498–511

  • Collishaw, Sally, Gardner, Frances, Maughan, Barbara, Scott, Jacqueline & Pickles, Andrew (2011) "Historical change in parenting of adolescents: Can it explain the rise in youth problem behavior?", Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 40 119-132

  • Schepman, Kristen, Collishaw, Sally, Gardner, Frances, Maughan, Barbara & Pickles, Andrew (2011) "Do changes in parent mental health explain trends in youth emotional problems?", Social Science and Medicine 73: 2 293-300

  • Cluver, Lucie D., Orkin, Mark, Boyes, Mark E., Gardner, Frances, & Meinck, Franziska (2011) "Transactional sex amongst AIDS-orphaned and AIDS-affected adolescents predicted by abuse and extreme poverty", Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 58 336-42. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31822f0d82

  • Gardner, Frances, Hutchings, Judy. & Bywater, Tracey (2010) "Who benefits and how does it work? Moderators and mediators of outcomes in a randomised trial of parenting interventions in multiple ‘Sure Start’ services. ", Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 39 568-80

  • Maughan, Barbara & Gardner, Frances (2010) "Family and parenting influences on antisocial behaviour", Smith, David ed.,A new response to youth crime.. Willan Publishing

  • Cluver, Lucie, Bowes, Lucy & Gardner, Frances (2010) "Risk and Protective Factors for Bullying victimisation amongst orphans and vulnerable children in South Africa", Child Abuse and Neglect 34 793-803

  • Cluver, Lucie, Gardner, Frances & Operario, Don (2010) "Psychological distress amongst AIDS-orphaned children in urban South Africa", Kaoukji, Dawn & M’Jid, Najat ed.,Children’s services in the Developing World. Ashgate: Library of Essays in Child Welfare and Development Series

  • Cluver, Lucie Operario, Don & Gardner, Frances (2010) "The family disease: Children orphaned by AIDS and living with HIV+ caregivers.", Tomlinson, Mike ed.,Child Psychology and Mental Health. Praeger Press

  • Linville, Deanna, Chronister, Krista, Dishion, Tom J., Todahl, Jeff, Miller, John, Shaw, Daniel S., Gardner, Frances, & Wilson, Melvin N.

    (2010) "A longitudinal analysis of parenting practices, couple satisfaction, and child behavior problems", Journal of Marital and Family Therapy : 36 244-255

  • Gardner, Frances, Connell, A., Trentacosta, Christopher, Shaw, Daniel S., Dishion, Thomas J., Wilson, Melvin (2009) "Moderators of outcome in a brief family-centred intervention for preventing early problem behaviour.", Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 4.2: 77 543-553

  • Shaw, Daniel S., Connell, Arin., Dishion, Thomas J., Wilson, Melvin, Gardner, Frances (2009) "Improvements in maternal depression as a mediator of intervention effects on early childhood problem behavior", Development & Psychopathology 4.4 : 21 417-439

  • Wilson, Melvin, Hurtt, Christine, Shaw, Daniel, Dishion, Thomas, Gardner, Frances (2009) "Analysis and Influence of Demographic and Risk Factors on Child Problem Behavior", Prevention Science : 10 353-365

  • Cluver, Lucie, Gardner, Frances & Operario, Don (2009) "Parental illness, caregiving factors and psychological distress among children orphaned by acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South Africa", Vulnerable Children & Youth Studies 4 185-98

  • Moilanen, Kristen, Shaw, Daniel, Dishion, Thomas, Gardner, Frances, Wilson, Melvin (2009) "Predictors of Longitudinal Growth in Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood.", Social Development 19 326-47

  • Gardner, Frances, Maughan, Barbara, Collishaw, Stephen. Scott, Jacqueline (2009)Has parenting changed over recent decades? Can changes in parenting explain the rise in adolescent problem behaviour?. The Nuffield Foundation.

  • Cluver, Lucie, Gardner, Frances, & Operario, Don (2009) "Effects of poverty on the psychological health of AIDS-orphaned children.", AIDS Care 21: 6 732-741

  • Montgomery Paul, Gardner Frances, Bjornstad Gretchen, & Ramchandani Paul ed., (2009)Systematic reviews of interventions following physical abuse: helping practitioners and expert witnesses improve the outcomes of child abuse.. London:

  • Gardner, Frances & Shaw, Daniel (). . (2008) "Behavioral problems of infancy and preschool children (0-5). ", Rutter, Michael Bishop, Dorothy, Pine, Daniel Scott, Stephen, Stevenson, Jim Taylor, Eric & Thapar, Anita ed.,Rutter's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th Edition. Blackwell

  • Le Couteur, Ann & Gardner, Frances (2008) "Structured interviews and observations", Rutter, Michael, Bishop, Dorothy Pine, Daniel Scott, Scott, Stevenson, Jim, Taylor, Eric & Thapar, Anita ed.,Rutter's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th Edition. . Blackwell

  • Dishion, Thomas J., Shaw, Daniel S., Connell, Arin., Gardner, Frances, Weaver, Chelsie & Wilson, Melvin (2008) "The Family Check-Up with high-risk indigent families: preventing problem behavior by increasing parents’ positive behavior support in early childhood", Child Development 3.4: 79 1395-1414

  • Trentacosta, Christopher, Hyde, Luke, Shaw, Daniel, Dishion, Thomas, Gardner, Frances, Wilson, Melvin (2008) "The Relations among cumulative risk, parenting, and behavior problems during early childhood", Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry : 49 1211-1218

  • Connell, Arin, Bullock, Bernadette. Dishion, Thomas J., Shaw, Daniel S., Wilson, Melvin, Gardner, Frances (2008) "Family Intervention Effects on Co-occurring Behavior and Emotional Problems in Early Childhood: A Latent Transition Analysis Approach", Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology : 36 1211-1227

  • Lunkenheimer, Erika, Dishion, Thomas J., Shaw, Daniel S., Connell, Arin, Gardner, Frances, Wilson, Melvin, & Skuban, Emily (2008) "Collateral benefits of the family check-up on early childhood school readiness: indirect effects of parents’ positive behavior support", Developmental Psychology 3: 44 1737-1752

  • Cluver, Lucie, Gardner Frances. & Operario, Don (2008) "Effects of stigma on the mental health of adolescents orphaned by AIDS. ", Journal of Adolescent Health 42 : 4 410-418

  • Cluver, Lucie, Gardner Frances. & Operario, Don (2008) "Effects of stigma on the mental health of adolescents orphaned by AIDS. ", Journal of Adolescent Health 42 : 4 410-418

  • Fisher, Herrick, Montgomery, Paul & Gardner, Frances  (2008)Opportunities provision for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people. Campbell Collaboration

  • Fisher, Herrick, Montgomery, Paul & Gardner, Frances  (2008)Cognitive-behavioural interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (7-16). Campbell Collaboration

  • Gardner, Frances (2008) "Effective parenting interventions: Breaking the cycle of disadvantage by helping troubled families and children", Gross, Jean ed.,Getting in Early: Primary Schools and Early Intervention.. London: Smith Institute and Centre for Social Justice

  • Hutchings, Judy, Bywater, Tracey, Daley, Dave, Gardner, Frances, Jones, Karen, Eames, Catrin & Edwards, Rihannon T (2007) "Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a parenting intervention in ‘Sure Start’ services for children at risk of developing conduct disorder", British Medical Journal : 334 678- 686. URL: www.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/334/7595/678

  • Gardner, Frances Shaw, Daniel, Dishion, Thomas, Burton, Jennifer & Supplee, Lauren (2007) "Randomised trial of a family-centred approach to preventing conduct problems: Effects on proactive parenting and links to toddler disruptive behaviour", Journal of Family Psychology  21 398-406

  • Cluver, Lucie, Gardner, Frances & Operario, Don (2007) "Psychological distress amongst AIDS-orphaned children in urban South Africa", Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychology 48: 8 755-763

  • Cluver, Lucie & Gardner, Frances (2007) "The Mental Health of Children orphaned by AIDS: A review of International and South African Research", Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health 19: 1 1-17

  • Cluver, Lucie & Gardner, Frances (2007) "Risk and protective factors for well-being of children orphaned by AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative study of children’s views", AIDS Care  19: 3 318-325

  • Gardner, Frances, Burton, Jennifer. & Klimes, Ivanna (2007) "A cognitive behavioural parenting intervention reduced conduct problems in children and improved parenting skill and confidence. Summary and commentary. ", Evidence-Based Nursing 10 46-47

  • Gray, Ron, Petrou, Stravos, Hockley, Christine Gardner, Frances (2007) "Self-reported health status and health–related quality of life of teenagers who were born before 29 weeks gestational age.", Pediatrics 120 86-93

  • Wilson, Christine, Gardner, Frances, Burton, Jennifer, Leung, Stephen (2007) "Maternal attributions and maternal behaviour: are they linked?", Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 35 165-178

  • Gardner, Frances, Burton, Jennifer & Klimes, Ivanna (2006) "Randomised controlled trial of a parenting intervention in the voluntary sector for reducing child conduct problems: outcomes and mechanisms of change.", Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 47 1123-1132

  • Shaw, Daniel S., Dishion, Thomas J., Supplee, Lauren, Gardner, Frances & Arnds, Karin (2006) "A family-centered approach to the prevention of early-onset antisocial behavior: Two-year effects of the family check-up in early childhood. ", Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology : 74 1-9

  • Wilson, Christine, Gardner, Frances, Leung, Stephen, Burton, Jennifer (2006) "Maternal attributions and young children’s conduct problems: a longitudinal study", Infant and Child Development 15 109-121

  • Cluver , Lucie & Gardner, Frances (2006) "The psychological well-being of children orphaned by AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa", Annals of General Psychiatry 5:8 . URL: www.annals-general-psychiatry.com/content/5/1/8

  • Skuban, Emily, Shaw, Daniel, Gardner, Frances & Supplee Lauren (2006) "Correlates of Dyadic Synchrony in High-Risk, Low-Income Toddler Boys", The Infant Behavior and Development 29 423-434

  • Gardner, Frances, (2004) "Three to eight years: risk and protective factors; effective interventions for preventing antisocial behaviour.", Farrington, David, Sutton, Carole & Utting, David ed.,Support from the Start: Working with Young Children and their Families to Reduce the Risks of Crime and Antisocial Behaviour.. London: DFES

  • Hutchings, Judy, Lane, Eleanor & Gardner, Frances (2004) "Making evidence-based interventions work", Farrington, David, Sutton, Carole & Utting, David ed.,Support from the Start: Working with Young Children and their Families to Reduce the Risks of Crime and Antisocial Behaviour.. London: DFES

  • Gardner, Frances, Hutchings, Judy & Lane, Eleanor (2004) "Three to eight years: risk and protective factors; effective interventions for preventing antisocial behaviour", Farrington, David, Sutton, Carole & Utting, David ed.,Support from the Start: Working with Young Children and their Families to Reduce the Risks of Crime and Antisocial Behaviour. London: DFES

  • Lane, Eleanor, Gardner, Frances, Hutchings, Judy & Jacobs, Ben (2004) "Eight to eleven years: risk and protective factors; effective interventions", Farrington, David, Sutton, Carole & Utting, David ed.,Working with Young Children and their Families to Reduce the Risks of Crime and Antisocial Behaviour. London: DFES

  • Gardner, Frances, Johnson, Ann, Yudkin, Patricia, Bowler, Ursula, Hockley, Christine, Mutch, Lesley, Wariyar, Unni (2004) "Behavioural and emotional adjustment of teenagers in mainstream school who were born before 29 weeks gestation", Pediatrics 114 676-682. URL: pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/114/3/676

  • Aspland, Helen & Gardner, Frances (2003) "Observational measures of parent child interaction", Child and Adolescent Mental Health 8 136-144

  • Gardner, Frances, Ward, Sarah, Burton, Jennifer & Wilson, Charlotte (2003) "Joint play and the early development of conduct problems in children: a longitudinal observational study of pre-schoolers.", 'Innovative approaches to examining social processes in the development of antisocial behaviour' 12 361-379

  • Johnson, Ann, Yudkin, Patricia, Bowler, Ursula, Hockley, Christine, Mutch, Lesley, Gardner, Frances, &. Wariyar, Unni (2003) "Health and school performance of teenagers who were born before 29 weeks gestation", Disease in Childhood 88 190 – 198

  • Elbourne, Dianna, Dezateux, Carole, Arthur, Rosemary., Clarke, N., Gray, Alastair, King, Andy, Quinn, Anne, Gardner, Frances, & Russell, Glynn

    (2002) "The UK Hip Trial: clinical and economic results of a multicentre randomised controlled trial of ultrasound imaging in the diagnosis and management of developmental hip dysplasia", The Lancet 360 2009-2018

  • Gardner, Frances (2000) "Methodological issues in the use of observational methods for measuring parent child interaction.", Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 3 185-198

  • Gardner, Frances & Ward, Sarah (2000) "Parent-child interaction and children's well-being: reducing conduct problems and promoting conscience development.", Buchanan, Ann & Hudson, Barbara ed., Promoting Children's Emotional Well-being. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 95-128

  • Gardner, Frances, Sonuga-Barke, Edmund & Sayal, Kapil (1999) "Parents anticipating misbehaviour: An observational study of strategies parents use to prevent conflict with behaviour problem children", Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40 1185-1196

  • Gardner, Frances (1998) "Observational studies of parent-child interaction and behaviour problems: implications for parent-training interventions", Buchanan, Ann & Hudson, Barbara ed.,Parenting, Schooling and Children's Behaviour. London: Ashgate:

  • Gardner, Frances (1997) " Observational methods for assessing interaction: how generalisable are the findings", Child Psychology & Psychiatry Review 2 70-75

  • Gardner, Frances (1994) "The quality of joint activity between mothers and their children with conduct problems.", Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 35 935-949

  • Gardner, Frances (1994) "Clinical Psychology", Education, Health and Social Services for Children, Teachers and Parents.. London: Cassell

  • Kalantari, Merhdad, Yule, William & Gardner, Frances (1993) "Protective factors and behavioural adjustment in preschool children of Iranian martyrs", Journal of Child and Family Studies 2 97-108

  • Gardner, Frances (1992) "Parent-child interaction and conduct disorder", Educational Psychology Review 4 135-163

  • Kalantari, Mahdad, Yule, William & Gardner, Frances (1990) "Behavioural characteristics of Iranian Martyrs' preschool children", Bereavement Care 9 5-7

  • Gardner, Frances (1989) "Inconsistent parenting: Is there evidence for a link with children's conduct problems?", Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 17 223-233

  • Gardner, Frances (1987) "Positive interaction between mothers and children with conduct problems: Is there training for harmony as well as for fighting?", Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 15 283-293